The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust says, “The area [Pentre & Ystrad] figures prominently in the early history of non-conformity in the region with the construction in 1786 of the Ynysfach Baptist Meeting House, later renamed Nebo, at Heolfach (Lewis 1959)”. Archivesnetworkwales confirms this, adding that Heolfach was “on the banks of the river Rhondda (Glamorgan)” and the name change occurred “during the early part of the 19th century”. I am inclined to believe that this relates to what became Nebo Welsh Baptist Chapel in Ystrad / Eglwys Bedyddwyr Cymraeg Nebo. In 1862, fifty two of its members went to establish the Welsh Baptist chapel called Hebron in Ton Pentre which is still active today. Nothing exists of Nebo chapel today apart from a wall and some railings but the neighbouring council estate was named in memory of it. The following photo, circa 1900 shows Nebo in its day.

Regarding the name, it’s completely consistent with the practice of C18 and C19 people to name chapels after towns or mountains named in the Old Testament.  Names like Bethesda , Nebo , Seion , Calfaria , Gosen , Garazim , Hebron etc.  More details on the name can be found here:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Nebo_%28Jordan%29

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The following map indicates where Nebo used to stand (a housing estate was created right next to the site at some point during the second half of C20 which takes its name).  There is still evidence of the wall/railings today.

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